海南4+1

土壤采样点的布设原则和方法
来源/作者:中国标准物质网  日期:2015-07-30

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一、布点原则
土壤监测点位布设方法和布设数量是根据其目的和要求,并结合现场勘查结果确定该区域内土壤监测点位。同时必须遵循如下5个原则。

(YI)QUANMIANXINGYUAN

BUSHEDEDIANWEIYAOQUANMIANFUGAIBUTONGLEIXINGDIAOCHAJIANCEDANYUANQUYU。

(ER)DAIBIAOXINGYUANZE

ZHENDUIBUTONGDIAOCHAJIANCEDANYUANQUYUTURANGDEWURANZHUANGKUANGHEWURANKONGJIANFENBUTEZHENGCAIYONGBUTONGBUDIANFANGFA,BUSHEDEDIANWEIYAONENGGOUDAIBIAODIAOCHAJIANCEQUYUNEITURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGZHUANGKUANG。

(SAN)KEGUANXINGYUANZE

JUTICAIYANGDIANXUANQUYINGZUNXUN“SUIJI”HE“DENGLIANG”YUANZE,BIMIANYIQIEZHUGUANYINSUO,SHIZUCHENGZONGTIDEGETIYOUTONGYANGDEJIHUIBEIXUANRUYANGPIN,TONGJIBIEYANGPINYINGDANGYOUXIANGSIDEDENGLIANGGETIZUCHENG,BAOZHENGXIANGTONGDEDAIBIAOXING。

(SI)KEXINGXINGYUANZE

BUDIANYINGJIANGUCAIYANGXIANCHANGDESHIJIQINGKUANG,KAOLVJIAOTONG、ANQUANDENGFANGMIANQINGKUANG:BAOZHENGYANGPINDAIBIAOXINGZUIDAHUA、ZUIDAXIANDUJIEYUERENLIHESHIYANSHIZIYUAN。

(WU)LIANXUXINGYUANZE

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ER、BUDIANFANGFA

(YI)JIANDANSUIJI

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(ER)FENKUAISUIJI

GENJUSHOUJIDEZILIAO,RUGUODIAOCHAJIANCEQUYUNEIDETURANGYOUMINGXIANDEFANZHONGLEIXING,ZEKEJIANGQUYUFENCHENGJIKUAI,MEIKUAINEIWURANWUJIAOJUNYUN,YINGJIANDECHAYIJIAOMINGXIAN。JIANGMEIKUAIZUOWEIYIGEJIANCEDANYUAN,ZAIMEIGEJIANCEDANYUANNEIZAISUIJIBUDIAN。ZAIZHENGQUEFENKUAIDEQIANTIXIA,FENKUAIBUDIANDEDAIBIAOXINGBIJIANDANSUIJIBUDIANHAO,RUGUOFENKUAIBUZHENGQUE,FENKUAIBUDIANDEXIAOGUOKENENGHUISHIDEQIFAN。

(SAN)XITONGSUIJI

JIANGJIANCEQUYUFENCHENGMIANJIXIANGDENGDEJIBUFEN(WANGGEHUAFEN),MEIWANGGENEIBUSHEYICAIYANGDIAN,ZHEIZHONGBUDIANCHENGWEIXITONGSUIJIBUDIAN。RUGUOQUYUNEITURANGWURANWUHANLIANGBIANHUAJIAODA,XITONGSUIJIBUDIANBIJIANDANSUIJIBUDIANSUOCAIYANGPINDEDAIBIAOXINGYAOHAO。BUDIANFANGSHISHIYIJIANTU3.1 。

SAN、DIANWEISHULIANG

TURANGJIANCEDEBUDIANSHULIANGYAOMANZUYANGBENRONGLIANGDEJIBENYAOQIU,JIYOUJUNFANGCHAHEJUEDUIPIANCHA、BIANYIXISHUHEXIANGDUIPIANCHAJISUANYANGPINSHUSHIYANGPINSHUDEXIAXIANSHUZHI。

1.YOUJUNFANGCHAHEJUEDUIPIANCHAJISUANYANGPINSHU

YONGXIALIEGONGSHIKEJISUANSUOXUDEYANGPINSHU:

N=t2s2 /D2

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SHILI:MOUDITURANGDUOLVLIANBEN(PCB)DENONGDUFANWEI0-13 mg/kg,RUO95%ZHIXINDUSHIPINGJUNZHIYUZHENZHIDEJUEDUIPIANCHAWEI1.5 mg/kg,sWEI3.25 mg/kg,CHUXUANZIYOUDUWEI10,CHAt=2.23ZE

N=(2.23)2 (3.25)2 /(1.5)2=23

YINWEI23BICHUXUANDE10DADEDUO,ZHONGXINXUANZEZIYOUDUCHAtZHIJISUANDE:

N=(2.069)2 (3.25)2/(1.5)2=20

20GETURANGYANGPINSHUJIAODA,YUANYINSHIQITURANGPCBHANLIANGFENBUBUJUNYUN((0-13 mg/kg ),YAOJIANGDICAIYANGDEYANGPINSHU,JIUDEXISHENGJIANCEJIEGUODEZHIXINDU(RUCONG95%JIANGDIDAO90%)HUOFANGKUANJIANCEJIEGUODEZHIXINDU(RUCONG1.5 mg/kgZENGJIADAO 2.0 mg/kg) 。

2.YOUBIANYIXISHUHEXIANGDUIPIANCHAJISUANYANGPINSHU

N= t2s2/D2KEBIANWEI:

N=t2Cv2/m2

SHIZHONG:NWEIYANGPINSHU;tWEIXUANDINGZHIXINSHUIPING(TURANGHUANJINGJIANCEYIBANXUANDINGWEI95%)YIDINGZIYOUDUXIADEtZHI;CvWEIBIANYIXISHU,%,KECONGXIANQIANDEQITAYANJIUZILIAOZHONGGUJI;mWEIKEJIESHOUDEXIANGDUIPIANCHA,%,TURANGHUANJINGJIANCEYIBANXIANDINGWEI20%-30%。

MEIYOULISHIZILIAODEDIQU、TURANGBIANYICHENGDUBUTAIDADEDIQU,YIBANCvKEQU10%-30%CULVEGUJI。SHIJIGONGZUOZHONGTURANGBUDIANSHULIANGHAIYAOGENJUDIAOCHAMUDE、DIAOCHAJINGDUHEDIAOCHAQUYUHUANJINGZHUANGKUANGDENGYINSUQUEDING。YIBANYAOQIUMEIGEJIANCEDANYUANZUISHAOSHE3GEDIAN。

3.QUYUTURANGHUANJINGDIAOCHA

ANDIAOCHADEJINGDUBUTONGKECONG2.5 km、5 km、10 km、20 km、40 kmZHONGXUANZEWANGJUWANGGEBUDIAN,QUYUNEIDEWANGGEJIEDIANSHUJIWEITURANGCAIYANGDIANSHULIANG。

SI、ZHUYISHIXIANG

(1) BUDIANYANZHENG:DIANWEIBUSHEBUNENGZUIZHONGQUEDINGQIAN,KEJINXINGXIANCHANGDIAOCHAJIYUCAIYANGXIANGJIEHE,GENJUBEIJINGZILIAOYUXIANCHANGKAOCHAJIEGUO,CAIJIYIDINGSHULIANGDEYANGPINFENXICEDING,YONGYUCHUBUYANZHENGWURANWUKONGJIANFENYIXINGHEPANDUANTURANGWURANCHENGDU,WEIBUDIANFANGSHIZUOSHIDANGDEYANZHENG。

(2) BUCHONGBUDIAN:ZHENGSHICAIYANG、JIANCEJIESHUHOU,RUOFAXIANBUSHEDEYANGDIANWEINENGMANZUDIAOCHAMUDE,ZEYAOZENGSHECAIYANGDIANBUCHONGCAIYANG。

(3)DIANWEIBUSHEJINGXIANCHANGKANCHA,YUDAOXIALIEJIZHONGQINGXINGDE,YINGYUYIDIAOZHENG。

① DANGCAIYANGQULUOZAIDAMIANJIWEISHUIMIAN(HEHU、KU)QUYUSHI,YINGQUXIAOGAIQUYUDIANWEI;WANGGENEIBUFENQUYUWEIHE(HU、KU)QUNEISHI,YINGJIANGDIANWEIPINGYIZHIWANGGEQUNEIDEZUIJINJULIDEFEIHE(HU、KU)QUXUANZEBEICAIDIAN。②DANGCAIYANGQUYINONGTIANTURANGWEIZHU,CAIYANGDIANLUOZAIGONGLUDAISHI,ZAIGONGLULIANGCE300 mYIWAIFENBIEXUANQUYIGEDIANZUOWEIBEICAIDIANCAIYANG。③DANGCAIYANGQULUOZAIGAOYUANQU,QUYUSHOURENLEISHENGCHANHUODONGYINGXIANGJIAOXIAO,KESHIDANGSUOJIANQUYUNEIJIANCEDIANWEI,ZAISHIHECAIYANGDIBUSHEDIANWEI,SHIJIANCEJIEGUOJIBENKEDAIBIAOGAOYUANQUYUNEISUOYOUTURANGHUANJINGZHILIANG。④BIMIANZAISHANLIN(CAO、SHA)QUZHONGXINDIDAIXUANDIAN。⑤POJIAO、WADIDENGJUYOUCONGSHUJINGGUANTEZHENGDEDIDIANBUSHECAIYANGDIAN。⑥CHENGZHEN、ZHUZHAI、DAOLU、GOUQU、FENKENG、FENMUFUJINDENGCHURENWEIGANRAODA,SHIQUTURANGDEDAIBIAOXING,BUYISHECAIYANGDIAN。⑦JINLIANGBIKAIDUOZHONGTULEI、DUOZHONGMUZHIMUYANJIAOCUOFENBUDEDIQUBUSHECAIYANGDIAN。

【关键词】土壤监测点位 土壤环境质量 布点方法