海南4+1

土壤样品的采集需要的步骤和注意事项
来源/作者:中国标准物质网  日期:2015-07-30

YI、CAIYANGZHUNBEI

1.ZUZHIZHUNBEI

BIANXIEXIANGXIDEGONGZUOFANGAN,YOUJUYOUYEWAIDIAOCHAJINGYANQIEZHANGWOTURANGCAIYANGJISHUGUICHENGDEZHUANYEJISHURENYUAN、HOUQINBAOZHANGRENYUAN、ZHIKONGRENYUANDENGZUCHENGCAIYANGZU,MINGQUEZERENFENGONG,ZERENDAOREN,CAIYANGQIANXUZUZHIPEIXUNXUEXIYOUGUANJISHUWENJIAN,LEJIEJIANCEJISHUGUIFAN。

2.ZILIAOSHOUJI

SHOUJIBAOKUOJIANCEQUYUDEJIAOTONGTU、TURANGTU、DIZHITU、DABILICHIDIXINGTU、TUDILIYONGTU、ZHIBEIFENBUTU、BENQUYUMINGSHENGGUJI、ZHONGDIANHUANJINGBAOHUMUBIAODENGFANGMIANZILIAO,ZHIZUOCAIYANGGONGZUOTUHEBIAOZHUCAIYANGDIANWEIYONG。SHOUJIBAOKUOJIANCEQUYUTULEI、CHENGTUMUZHIDENGTURANGXINXIZILIAO。SHOUJIGONGCHENGJIANSHEHUOSHENGCHANGUOCHENGDUITURANGZAOCHENGYINGXIANGDEHUANJINGYANJIUZILIAO,ZAOCHENGTURANGWURANSHIGUDEZHUYAOWURANWUDEDUXING、WENDINGXINGYIJIRUHEXIAOCHUDENGZILIAO,TURANGLISHIZILIAOHEXIANGYINGDEFALV(FAGUI),JIANCEQUYUGONGNONGYESHENGCHANJIPAIWU、WUGUAN、HUAFEINONGYAOSHIYONGQINGKUANGZILIAO,JIANCEQUYUQIHOUZILIAO(WENDU、JIANGSHUILIANGHEZHENGFALIANG)、SHUIWENZILIAOYIJIJIANCEQUYUYAOGANYUTURANGLIYONGJIQIYANBIANGUOCHENGFANGMIANDEZILIAODENG。

3.BUDIANSHEJIJIXIANCHANGKANCHA

ZAIXIANCHANGKANCHAZHIQIAN,GENJUDIAOCHAMUDEJINXINGCHUBUSHEJI,QUEDINGDIAOCHAQUYUNEILILUNJIANCEDIANWEIJI,BINGQIEBIANZHIFANGAN。RANHOU,TONGGUOBIYAODEXIANCHANGKANCHAZUIZHONGDUILILUNBUDIANJINXINGJIANYANHEYOUHUA,XINGCHENGDIAOCHAQUYUNEISHIJIJINXINGJIANCEDEDIANWEIJI,BINGXIUDINGFANGAN。XIANCHANGKANCHAZHUYAOBAOKUODUIYIDITUCHUBUBUSHEDEJIANCEDIANLIYONGGPSJINXINGXIAOZHENG、JINXINGTUYANGCAIJIKEXINGXINGKANCHA、DUIBUDIANJINXINGYOUHUAHEDIAOZHENG。

4.CAIYANGQIJUZHUNBEI

(1) GONGJULEI:HAOTOU、TIEQIAO、TIECHAN、YUANZHUANGQUTUZUAN、LUOXUANQUTUZUAN、ZHUPIANYIJISHIHETESHUCAIYANGYAOQIUDEGONGJUDENG。

(2)QICAILEI:GPS.LUOPAN、SHUMAZHAOXIANGJI、JUANCHI、LVHE、YANGPINDAI、YANGPINPING、YUNSHUXIANGDENG。

(3) WENJULEI:TURANGYANGPINBIAOQIAN(BIAO3.1)、DIANWEIBIANHAOBIAOZHI、TURANGBISEKA、POUMIANBIAOCHI、CAIYANGXIANCHANGJILUBIAO(BIAO3.2)、QIANBI、ZILIAOJIADENG。

(4) XIANCHANGCAIYANGDINGXINGSHIJIDENG。

(5) ANQUANFANGHUYONGPIN:GONGZUOFU、GONGZUOXIE、ANQUANMAO、YAOPINXIANGDENG。

(6) CAIYANGYONGCHELIANGJILENGZANGXIANG。

ER、YANGPINCAIJIFANGFA

CAIYANGKEFENWEICAIBIAOCENGYANGPINHECAIJITURANGPOUMIANYANGPIN。

(YI)CAIJITURANGBIAOCENG

YIBANJIANCEZHIXUCAIJIBIAOCENGTURANG,KEYONGCAIYANGCHANWAQU0-20 cmDETURANG,CAIJIBIAOCENGKEYICAIJIDANDUYANGPINYEKEYICAIJIHUNHEYANGPIN。NONGTIANZHONGZHIYIBANNONGZUOWUCAI0-20 cm,ZHONGZHIGUOLINLEINONGZUOWUCAI0-60 cm。WEILEBAOZHENGYANGPINDEDAIBIAOXING,JIANDIJIANCEFEIYONG,KEYICAIQUCAIJIHUNHEYANGDEFANGAN。MEIGETURANGDANYUANSHE3-7GECAIYANGQU,DANGECAIYANGQUKEYISHIZIRANFENGEDEYIGETIANKUAI,YEKEYIYOUDUOGETIANKUAISUOGOUCHENG,QIFANWEIYI200 m×200 mWEIYI。MEIGECAIYANGQUDEYANGPINWEINONGTIANTURANGHUNHEYANG。HUNHEYANGDECAIJIZHUYAOYOUSIZHONGFANGFA(TU3.2):

(1) DANJIAOXIANFA:SHIYONGYUWUGUANNONGTIANTURANG,DUIJIAOXIANFENWEI5DENGFEN,YIDENGFENDIANWEICAIYANGFENDIAN;

(2) SHUANGDUIJIAOXIANFA:SHIYONGYUMIANJIJIAOXIAO,DISHIPINGTAN,TURANGZUCHENGHESHOUWURANCHENGDUXIANGDUIBIJIAOJUNYUNDEDIKUAI,SHEFENDIAN5GEZUOYOU;

(3)QIPANSHIFA:SHIYIZHONGDENGMIANJI、DISHIPINGTAN、TURANGBUGOUJUNYUNDEDIKUAI,SHEFENDIAN10GEZUOYOU,SHOUWUNI、LAJIDENGGUTIFEIWUWURANDETURANG,FENDIANYINGZAI20GEYISHANG;

(4) SHEXINGFA:SHIYIYUMIANJIJIAODA、TURANGBUGOUJUNYUNQIEDISHIBUPINGTANDEDIKUAI,SHEFENDIAN15GEZUOYOU,DUOYONGYUNONGYEWURANXINGTURANG。

GEFENDIANHUNYUNHOUYONGSIFENFAQU1 kgTUYANGZHUANGRUYANGPINDAI,DUOYUBUFENQIQU。RUSHIYONGTUZUAN,YICAIYANGDIANZHONGXINHUABANJINGWEI1mDEYUANZHOU,ZAIYUANZHOUSHANGDENGJUCAIJI4GEYANGPIN,ZAIZHONGXINSHANGCAIJI1GEYANGPIN,JIANG5GEYANGPINDENGZHONGLIANGHUNYUNWEI1GEDANDUYANGPIN,BAOLIU1kgZUOYOU,QIYUYONGSIFENFAQIQU。

(ER)CAIJITURANGPOUMIAN

TESHUYAOQIUDEJIANCE(TURANGBEIJING、HUANPING、WURANSHIGUDENG)YOUBIYAOSHIKEXUANZEBUFENCAIYANGDIANWEIPOUMIANCAIYANG。POUMIANDEGUIGEYIBANWEIZHANG1.5 m,KUAN0.8 m,SHEN1.2 m。WAJUETURANGPOUMIANYAOSHIGUANCHAMIANXIANGYANG,JIANGBIAOTUHEDITUFENLIANGCEFANGZHI。YIBANDIANXINGDEZIRANTURANGPOUMIANFENWEIACENG(BIAOCENG,FUZHIZHILINRONGCENG)、BCENG(YACENG,DIANJICENG)、CCENG(FENGHUAMUYANCENG、MUZHICENG)HEDIYANCENG。DIXIASHUIWEIJIAOGAOSHI,POUMIANWAZHIDIXIASHUICHULUSHIWEIZHI;SHANDIQIULINGTUCENGJIAOBOSHI,POUMIANWAZHIFENGHUACENG。DUIBCENGFAYUBUWANZHENG(BUFAYU)DESHANDITURANG,ZHICAIA、CLIANGCENG。SHUIDAOTUANZHAOAGENGZUOCENG、PLIDICENG、CMUZHICENG(HUOGQIANYUCENGHUOWYIYUCENG)FENCENGCAIYANG,DUIPCENGTAIBODEPOUMIAN,ZHICAIA、CLIANGCENG(HUOA、GCENGHUOA、WCENG)。GANHANDIQUPOUMIANFAYUBUWANSHANDETURANG,ZAIBIAOCENG5-20 cm、XINTUCENG50 cm、DITUCENG100 cmZUOYOUCAIYANG。GENJUTURANGPOUMIANYANSE、JIEGOU、ZHIDI、SONGJINDU、WENDU、ZHIWUGENXIFENBUDENGHUAFENTUCENG,BINGJINXINGZIXIGUANCHA;JIANGPOUMIANXINGTAI、TEZHENGZISHANGERXIAZHUYIJILU。SUIHOUZAIGECENGZUIDIANXINGDEZHONGBUZIXIAERSHANGZHUCENGCAIYANG,ZAIGECENGNEIFENBIEYONGXIAOTUCHANQIEQUYIPIANTURANGYANG,MEIGECAIYANGDIANDEQUTUSHENDUHEQUYANGLIANGYINGYIZHI。YONGYUZHONGJINSHUFENXIDEYANGPIN,YINGJIANGYUJINSHUCAIYANGQIJIECHUBUFENDETUYANGQIQU。TURANGPOUMIANJIANTU3.3。

(SAN)XINXIANTURANGYANGPINDECAIJI

ZAICEDINGTURANGHUIFAXING、BANHUIFAXINGWUZHISHI,XUYAOCAIJITURANGXINXIANYANGPIN,XINXIANYANGPINBIXUCAIJIDANDUYANGPIN。YIBANYONG250 mlDAIYOUJUSIFUYIXICHENDIANDECAIYANGPINGCAIYANG,WEIFANGZHIYANGPINZHANWUPINGKOU,KEJIANGYINGZHIBANWEICHENGLOUDOUZHUANG,JIANGYANGPINZHUANGRUYANGPINPINGZHONG,YANGPINYAOZHUANGMANYANGPINPING,DIWENBAOCUN。

SAN、CAIYANGSHIQI

WEILEJIETURANGWURANZHUANGKUANG,KESUISHICAIJIYANGPINJINXINGCEDING。RUXUTONGSHIZHANGWOZAITURANGSHANGSHENGZHANGDEZUOWUSHOUWURANZHUANGKUANG,KEYIJUJIJIEHUOZUOWUSHOUHUOSHIQICAIYANG,YIBANZAIQIUJIZUOWUSHOUHUOHOUHUOCHUNJIBOZHONGSHIYONGQIANCAIJI,GUOYUANZAIGUOSHICAIZHAIHOUDEDIYICISHIFEIQIANCAIJI。MIANJIJIAOXIAODETURANGWURANDIAOCHAHETUFAXINGTURANGWURANSHIGUDIAOCHAKESUISHIZHIJIECAIYANG。

YANGPINCAIJIANBUTONGJIEDUANYOUKEFENWEI:

(1) QIANQICAIYANG:GENJUBEIJINGZILIAOYUXIANCHANGKAOCHAJIEGUO,CAIJIYIDINGSHULIANGDEYANGPINFENXICEDING,YONGYUCHUBUYANZHENGWURANWUKONGJIANFENYIXINGHEPANDUANTURANGWURANCHENGDU,WEIZHIDINGJIANCEFANGAN(XUANZEBUDIANFANGSHIHEQUEDINGJIANCEXIANGMUJIYANGPINSHULIANG)TIGONGYIJU,QIANQICAIYANGKEYUXIANCHANGDIAOCHATONGSHIJINXING。

(2)ZHENGSHICAIYANG:ANZHAOJIANCEFANGAN,SHISHIXIANCHANGCAIYANG。

(3) BUCHONGCAIYANG:ZHENGSHICAIYANGCESHIHOU,FAXIANBUSHEDEYANGDIANMEIYOUMANZUZONGTISHEJIXUYAO,ZEYAOJINXINGZENGSHECAIYANGDIANBUCHONGCAIYANGKOU

SI、CAIYANGLIANG

TURANGYANGPINYIBANCAIYANGLIANGWEI1-3 kg,DUIHUNHEYANGPINXUFANFUANSIFENFAQIQU,ZUIHOULIUXIASUOXUDETUYANGLIANG,ZHUANGRUCAIYANGBUDAINEI。

WU、LIYANGJILU

CAIYANGSHIDUIYANGPINJINXINGBIANHAOJITIANXIECAIYANGJILU、YANGPINBIAOQIAN。XIANCHANGBIXURENZHENTIANXIELIYANGJILUBIAO,PAISHESHUMAXIANGPIAN,YONGGPSWEIXINGDINGWEIJILUYANGDIANJINGWEIDU。CAIYANGJILUBAOKUODUIYANGPINDEJIANDANMIAOSHU(RUTURANGZHIDI、GANSHICHENGDU、YANSE、ZHIWUGENXIHEYIWULIANGDENG),CAIYANGDIANZHOUWEIQINGKUANGJITUDILIYONGLISHIDENGNEIRONG。ANZHAOFANGANYAOQIUBIANZHI8-12WEITURANGYANGPINHAOMA,XIANCHANGTIANXIEBIAOQIANLIANGZHANG,YIZHANGFANGRUYANGPINDAINEI,YIZHANGZHAZAIYANGPINDAIWAI。CAIYANGJIESHU,XUZHUXIANGJIANCHATURANGYANGPINHEYANGDAIBIAOQIAN、CAIYANGJILU,RUYOUQUEXIANGHECUOWU,JISHIBUQIGENGZHENG。JIANGXIANCHANGCAIYANGDIANDEJUTIQINGKUANG,RUTURANGPOUMIANXINGTAITEZHENGDENGZUOXIANGXIJILU。

LIU、NONGTIANHECHENGSHITURANGCAIYANG

(YI)NONGTIANTURANGCAIYANG

NONGTIANTURANGCAIYANGSHOUXIANYINGQUELITURANGJIANCEDANYUAN,JIANCEDANYUANHUAFENYAOGENJUDIAOCHAMUDE、DIAOCHAJINGDUHEDIAOCHAQUYUHUANJINGZHUANGKUANGDENGYINSUQUEDINGJIANCEDANYUAN。TONGSHIHAIYAOCANKAOTURANGLEIXING、NONGZUOWUZHONGLEI、GENGZUOZHIDU、LIANGSHISHENGCHANJIDI、BAOHUQULEIXING、XINGZHENGQUHUADENGYAOSU,TONGYIDANYUANDECHABIEYINGJINKENENGDISUOXIAO,BUMENZHUANXIANGDIAOCHAANQIZHUANXIANGJIANCEYAOQIUJINXING。

TURANGHUANJINGJIANCEDANYUANANTURANGWURANTUJINGKEHUAFENWEI:

(1) DAQIWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUAN;

(2) GUANGAISHUIWURANJIANCEDANYUAN;

(3) GUTIFEIWUDUIWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUAN;

(4)%NONGYONGHUAXUEWUZHIWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUAN;

(5)ZONGHEWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUAN(WURANWULAIZISHANGSHULIANGZHONGYISHANGTUJING)。

DAQIWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUANHEGUTIFEIWUDUIWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUANYIWURANYUANWEIZHONGXINFANGSHEZHUANGBUDIAN,ZAIZHUDAOFENGXIANGHEDIBIAOSHUIDEJINGLIUFANGXIANGSHIDANGZENGJIACAIYANGDIAN(LIWURANYUANDEJULIYUANYUQITADIAN);GUANGAISHUIWURANJIANCEDANYUANCAIYONGANSHUILIUFANGXIANGDAIZHUANGBUDIAN,CAIYANGDIANZINAWUKOUQIYOUMIJIANSHU;NONGYONGHUAXUEWUZHIWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUANCAIYONGJUNYUNBUDIAN;ZONGHEWURANXINGTURANGJIANCEDANYUANBUDIANCAIYONGZONGHEFANGSHEZHUANG、JUNYUN、DAIZHUANGBUDIANFA。

(ER)CHENGSHITURANGCAIYANG

CHENGQUNEIDABUFENTURANGBEIDAOLUHEJIANZHUWUFUGAI,ZHIYOUXIAOBUFENTURANGZAIZHICAOMU,YOUYUCHENGSHITURANGQIFUZAXINGYAOQIUFENLIANGCENGCAIYANG,SHANGCENG((0-30 cm)KENENGSHIHUITIANTUHUOSHOURENWEIYINGXIANGDADEBUFEN,LINGYICENG(30-60 cm)WEIRENWEIYINGXIANGXIANGDUIJIAOXIAOBUFEN。LIANGCENGFENBIEQUYANGJIANCE。CHENGSHITURANGJIANCEDIANYIWANGJU2 000 mDEWANGGEBUSHEWEIZHU,GONGNENGQUBUDIANWEIFU,MEIGEWANGGESHEYIGECAIYANGDIAN。DUIYUZHUANXIANGYANJIUHEDIAOCHADECAIYANGDIANKESHIDANGJIAMI。

(SAN)WURANSHIGUJIANCETURANGCAIYANG

WURANSHIGUBUKEYULIAO,JIEDAOJUBAOHOULIJIZUZHICAIYANG。SHOUXIANYAOXIANCHANGDIAOCHAHEQUZHENG,JILUTURANGBEIWURANSHIJIAN,GENJUWURANWUJIQIDUITURANGDEYINGXIANGQUEDINGJIANCEXIANGRI,YOUQIWURANSHIGUDETEZHENGXINGZHUWUZUJIANCEDEZHONGDIAN。RUGUOSHIGUTIWURANWUPAOSAWURANXING,DENGDASAOHOUCAIJIBIAOCENG5 cmTUYANG,TIANYANGDIANSHUXIAOSHAOYU3GE。RUGUOSHIYETIQINGFANWURANXING,WURANWUXIANGDIWACHULIUDONGDETONGSHIXIANGSHENDUFANGXIANGSHENSHIBINGXIANGLIANGCEHENGXIANGFANGXIANGKUOSAN,MEIGEDIANFENCENGCAIYANG,SHIGUFASHENGDIANYANGPINDIANJIAOMI,CAIYANGSHENDUJIAOSHEN,LISHIGUFASHENGDIANXIANGDUIYUANCHUYANGPINDIANJIAOSHU,CAIYANGSHENDUJIAOQIAN。CAIYANGDIANBUSHAOYU5GE。SHIGUTURANGJIANCEYAOSHEDING2-3GEBEIJINGDUIZHAODIAN,GEDIAN(CENG)QU1 kgTUYANGZHUANGRUYANGPINDAI,YOUFUSHIXINGHUOYAOCEDINGHUIFAXINGHUAHEWU,GAIYONGGUANGKOUPINGZHUANGYANG。HANYIFENJIEYOUJIWUDEDAICEDINGYANGPIN,CAIJIHOUZHIYUDIWEN(BINGXIANG)ZHONG,ZHIZHIYUNSONG、YIJIAODAOFENXISHI。

QI、TURANGYANGPINDELIUZHUAN

TURANGYANGPINLIUZHUANBAOKUOCAIYANGXIANCHANGYANGPINJIANCHAHEDUOCIYANGPINJIAOJIEBAOCUN。ZAICAIYANGXIANCHANGBIXUJIANGYANGPINZHUJIANYUYANGPINBIAOQIANHECAIYANGJILUJINXINGHEDUI,HEDUIHOUFENLEIZHUANGXIANG。YANGPINZAIYUNSHUZHONGYANFANGYANGPINDESUNSHI、HUNXIAOHUOZHANWU,DUIGUANGMINGANDEYANGPINYINGYOUBIGUANGWAIBAOZHUANG,JISHISONGZHISHIYANSHI。CEDINGYOUJIWUDETURANGYANGPINYAODIWEN((4℃)ANCHULENGZANGBAOCUN,BINGJINKUAIJIANGYANGPINSONGDASHIYANSHI。CAIYANGZHEHESHIYANSHIYANGPINGUANLIYUANSHUANGFANGTONGSHIQINGDIANHESHIYANGPIN,BINGZAIYANGPINLIUZHUANKASHANGQIANZIQUEREN,YANGPINLIUZHUANKAYISHISIFEN,CAIYANGZHEYIFEN、YANGPINGUANLIYUANCUNYIFEN、FENXIRENYUANYIFEN、SHENGXIAYIFENSUISHUJUCUNDANG,YANGPINYUNZHUANGUOCHENGZHONGXUYAOQUEBAOYANGPINBIAOSHIDEWEIYIXING。

BA、CAIYANGZHUYISHIXIANG

(1) CAIYANGDIANBUYISHEZAITIANBIAN、GOUBIAN、LUBIANHUOFEIDUIBIAN;CAIYANGSHIYAOSHOUXIANQINGCHUBIAOCENGDEKUZHILUOYE,YOUZHIWUSHENGZHANGDEDIANWEIYAOSHOUXIANCHUQUZHIWUJIQIGENXI。CAIYANGXIANCHANGYAOTICHULISHIDENGYIWU。YAOZHUYIJISHIQINGJIECAIYANGGONGJU,BIMIANJIAOCHAWURAN。

(2) MEIGECAIYANGDIANDEQUTUSHENDUJICAIYANGLIANGYINGJUNYUNYIZHI,TURANGSHANGCENGYUXIACENGDEBILIYAOXIANGTONG。QUYANGQIYINGCHUIZHIYUDIMIANRUTU,SHENDUXIANGTONG。YONGQUTUCHANQUYANGYINGXIANCHANCHUYIGEGENGCENGDUANMIAN,ZAIPINGXINGYUDUANMIANXIACHANQUTU。

(3) CEDINGWEILIANGYUANSUDEYANGPINBIXUYONGBUXIUGANGQUTUQICAIYANG。

(4) CEDINGZHONGJINSHUDEYANGPIN,JINLIANGYONGZHUCHAN、ZHUPIANZHIJIECAIQUYANGPIN,HUOYONGTIECHAN、TUZUANWAJUEHOU,YONGZHUPIANGUAQUYUJINSHUCAIYANGQIJIECHUDEBUFEN,ZAIYONGZHUPIANCAIQUYANGPIN。DUIYUWURANTURANGDEYANGPIN,YAOGENJUWURANWUDEXINGZHICAIQUXIANGYINGDEFANGHUCUOSHI,BIMIANYURENSHENTIDEZHIJIEJIECHU。

(5)CAIJIHUIFAXING、BANHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUYANGPINSHI,YAOFANGZHIDAICEWUZHIHUIFA,ZHUYIYANGPINMANPINGBULIUKONGXI,DIWENYUNSHUHEBAOCUN。

【关键词】土样采集 样品采集方法 土壤表层 土壤剖面 土壤样品